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The Most Violent Medieval Inventions You Won't Believe Existed Fight Book | Absolute History

  • Жарияланды 2021 ж. 5 Қар.

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  • Absolute History
    Absolute History   Жыл бұрын +165

    📺 It's like Netflix for history! Sign up to History Hit, the world's best history documentary service, and enjoy a discount on us: bit.ly/3vdL45g

    • U TUBE I s GAYyYYyYy
      U TUBE I s GAYyYYyYy Ай бұрын

      history that’s just starting over again , when 2000 years before this The civilisation was more advanced.

    • Debby Lou
      Debby Lou Ай бұрын

      It’s interesting how many of these weapons and devices, consciously or not, look like inspiration taken from insects. The whole exoskeleton thing is obvious as well as the insectile protrusions

    • Gregg Molter
      Gregg Molter Ай бұрын

      John just uól

    • TheMotoguse
      TheMotoguse Ай бұрын +1

      I hate netflix. Thanks for saving me the time.

  • multiHappyHacker
    multiHappyHacker  Жыл бұрын +1479

    This is absolutely great stuff, reminds me of when the history channel was actually good.

    • Craig Price
      Craig Price Ай бұрын

      I agree 100!!

    • Jack Grant
      Jack Grant Ай бұрын

      The history channel: here is a castle. Aliens made it.

    • Doc, Stock, & Barrel
      Doc, Stock, & Barrel Ай бұрын

      @multiHappyHackerchoot 'em elithabet!

    • Heidenspross
      Heidenspross Ай бұрын

      aaah HC's pre-pawnshop era... good old times...

  • One Puff Man
    One Puff Man  Жыл бұрын +211

    What if the Crayfish was rolled down a hill into enemy formations? It seems more likely given that it would acquire a decent speed with it's weight and would slam into battle lines where the bombs would then detonate after punching through and cause extra damage to rear lines. Trying to grab it to stop it would be extremely difficult as you'd get shredded by the blades, wheels and spikes, and would take off the legs of whoever it came barreling into.

    • Darren Thomas
      Darren Thomas 22 күн бұрын

      @Your Conscience Toboggan's are deadly without sharp objects but take no prisoners.

    • Darren Thomas
      Darren Thomas 22 күн бұрын

      The only down side to that is the enemy ends up with your very expensive war weapon. I was thinking hooking (behind) a fast horse and rider and letting the opposing army initiate infantry battle and then sending it into their midst just before sending your own infantry..

    • Skinflaps Meatslapper
      Skinflaps Meatslapper 29 күн бұрын

      @kev3d Since the internal portion was never depicted, it's possible there was a rudimentary impact fuse inside. An ignition source (ember, fuse, lump of charcoal, etc.) on a sliding cart that could move with a little effort to either side, and the grenade would have a corresponding touch hole. If it was suddenly stopped via contact with people or horses or siege engines, the fuse cart would keep going, sliding the ignition source to the touch hole, and there's your explosion right when you needed it.
      Perhaps instead of being carted back and forth in a hallway like a video game, they were held in positions behind the wall on a ramp until the enemy got close, and then let loose into an enemy formation. Seeing as how they were so short, they could potentially fit through holes in a defensive wall that couldn't be utilized by attackers. Maybe the blades on the front/rear were more for stopping the thing so the impact fuse could be triggered, rather than cutting legs off and whatnot. Though I guess they could serve more than one purpose in that regard.
      A few things that don't really fit with a roll it down a hill idea is the bi-directional design and the lowrider little wheels. Bi-directional is entirely redundant for a one and done/ram and explode type of weapon, which would suggest that it was meant to be used coming and going, possibly like the video suggested. The wheels don't appear to be useful rolling downhill, they're too small for that and the first little bump would send those blades plowing into the ground and rendering your metal murder explodey cockroach useless. They look to be more suited for street/cobblestone/bridge terrain. Maybe they sent them down a street or bridge tied to a rope, blew up the initial invading wave, allowed the next wave to make their way past, then were pulled back for another attack from behind. Send a bunch in series, act like you're retreating when you run out of them, but really you're pulling them back for another attack from behind. Use horses or counterweights for the retrieval or something. The mention that it could be sized to any dimension desired throws another wrench into the mix...I mean, a small variant might have use in castle defense, but they could only get so big before they'd be useless in a castle. Size them big enough to completely span a hall/road/bridge? Maybe it could be effective, but where would you store the silly thing before or after the attack? I dunno, it's all a guessing game really. Could've just as likely been an attention grabber for people to buy his book or services, we'll probably never know.

    • TJ G
      TJ G Ай бұрын

      @pixelletickle But for what?

  • rareswag
    rareswag  Жыл бұрын +154

    I just want to applaud these dudes for their very real fighting (and possibly to the, actual, death), for science! 🤣 homeboy definitely got a concussion from that pommel blow... this show's insane, I can't believe they did that.
    I did notice the arrows fired earlier didn't have true tips, but still, these guys got balls, or just crazy, walking right into arrows fired at them from an 80 lb pull bow! 😂

    • Skinflaps Meatslapper
      Skinflaps Meatslapper 29 күн бұрын +1

      In most of the scenes they're using rubber head arrows, but at 33:25 you can see one of the arrows managed to penetrate the bell with someone inside. That was either very well staged with a real arrow or the guy in the bell probably pissed himself trying to scream cease fire.

    • Lerssoun
      Lerssoun Ай бұрын

      I noticed that they didnt use anykind of arming cap under the helm and that would definetly increase the amount of force transferred straight to the head.

    • John DoDo Doe
      John DoDo Doe Ай бұрын

      Some scenes apparently had dummies in the suits.

    • C.E.T Gale
      C.E.T Gale Ай бұрын

      @Nickolas Phillips Thats spring steel for you, the only steel real swords are made from.... Stainless is much harder but will break. Thats why SS swords are usually just replicas to put on a wall....

    • Psycho Sweetheart
      Psycho Sweetheart 2 ай бұрын +3

      The blunted arrow tips were probably for liability reasons that the production company's insurance stipulated (these dudes seem like they would absolutely go for full 100% authenticity if given the chance 🤣)

  • Attempt Madeツ
    Attempt Madeツ  Жыл бұрын +72

    Absolutely incredible! The history channel had me believing that it was impossible to accurately depict history in an entertaining way.

    • Michael Hendricks
      Michael Hendricks 4 ай бұрын

      And this channel, which literally contradicts themselves in their own videos, fixed that for you?

    • Badlaama Urukehu
      Badlaama Urukehu  Жыл бұрын

      This is nothing new.

    • Arcadia
      Arcadia  Жыл бұрын +1

      😂 "impossible"

  • Daniel L
    Daniel L  Жыл бұрын +36

    I love this. It is like discovering that you've been using a tool the wrong way. There was so much more to medieval combat than I ever imagined. And the technical prowess of its engineers is astonishing. I can't help but wonder if men like Talhoffer and Da Vinci were perhaps more widespread than we'd originally thought? I'm glad that interest in this period of time is so high that this much energy is put into rediscovering this very different world.

    • Cletus Spuckler Stable Jeanius
      Cletus Spuckler Stable Jeanius 2 ай бұрын

      @Michael Hendricks ... Then that would make me the Oracle at Philadelphi.

    • Michael Hendricks
      Michael Hendricks 2 ай бұрын

      @Cletus Spuckler Stable Jeanius How did Socrates define "wisdom," Jeanius? Do you know the story of him visiting the oracle?
      LOL You EPITOMIZE that story.

    • Michael Hendricks
      Michael Hendricks 2 ай бұрын

      @Cletus Spuckler Stable Jeanius I have never laughed so hard or long at a youtube comment than I did reading what you decided to call yourself. "Jeanius" LOLLLLLLLLL!!!!
      You don't even understand basic reasoning! LOL! I can't stop... I can't breathe... omg... THANK YOU, I haven't laughed that hard in months.

    • Michael Hendricks
      Michael Hendricks 2 ай бұрын +1

      @Cletus Spuckler Stable Jeanius Smart people make mistakes.
      Stupid people don't realize they've made mistakes.
      You didn't even understand what I said.

    • Michael Hendricks
      Michael Hendricks 2 ай бұрын

      @Cletus Spuckler Stable Jeanius HAHAHAHAHAHAHAHAHA!
      Thank you! HAHAHAHAHA!

  • Josh Rakestraw
    Josh Rakestraw  Жыл бұрын +36

    I really need this guy's enthusiasm and excitement at 22:00, rushing over there to see that obliterated plank. That's the vibe I be needing right now in life. I mean he was SOO excited he couldn't wait to get over there and tell us all about it! I bet he is super fun guy to hangout with 😂

    • Jack Smith
      Jack Smith Ай бұрын

      I can't stand him

    • timagamer
      timagamer Ай бұрын +2

      It's Mike Loades, he's always like that :) Believe it or not, he's about 70 at the time this video was recorded!

    • Raisin Bran Cereal
      Raisin Bran Cereal 2 ай бұрын +3

      There really is something so joyous about listening to people talk about their passions

  • everything will be ok
    everything will be ok  Жыл бұрын +534

    This was super entertaining. Some of the re-enactments felt pretty risky... I felt bad for the guy who took the multiple pommel strikes to the dome..

    • scrappy doo
      scrappy doo Ай бұрын

      Cotton wool culture

    • scrappy doo
      scrappy doo Ай бұрын

      @Ned K no. No he didn't

    • Kevin Brislawn
      Kevin Brislawn Ай бұрын

      The poor schlub probably had to sue due to primitive methods on the set 😃

    • Otto Von Bismarck
      Otto Von Bismarck Ай бұрын

      He looked upset to me. He sounded like he was describing a head injury and the host was just this is how we train 🌞

    • KomaruKirinashi
      KomaruKirinashi 2 ай бұрын

      The guy they brought in, John Clements, is widely known in historical European martial arts circles to be... shall we say "less than concerned" with the safety of those around him and those he works with.

  • Jason Ranck
    Jason Ranck  Жыл бұрын +11

    Doctor Hughes is an international treasure. She's forgotten more about history than most of us will EVER know.

  • Nature loving Froggy
    Nature loving Froggy  Жыл бұрын +13

    I wish this type of content was taught when I was at school because I would have been so much more interested in learning! I am going to get my kids to watch this as well! Very interesting, informative and engaging, have subscribed to your channel. Thank you for teaching an old dog new information 😂

  • Bikes, Birds, and Bonsai
    Bikes, Birds, and Bonsai 3 ай бұрын +78

    Wow! That was totally fascinating! Really well put together and delivered... this came up on my feed and I'm so glad I decided to watch it... loved it! Subscribed, of course lol

    • Jason Alen
      Jason Alen 2 ай бұрын +1

      @A PK It being fiction could be a possibility, and yes there wasn't much objectivity, but it is quite astonishing that everything they tested in the video either outright worked or is plausible. And if it is fiction, then what might the story be, if it had one?

    • A PK
      A PK 2 ай бұрын +2

      Did nobody stop snd think that maybe this "manuscript" is actually a fiction piece or written for entertainment at the time? Everyone acting like it's some sort of special book illustrating everything as factual. There doesn't seem to be much objectivity from the people who've looked at it.

  • Kathryn's World - Wildfire Tracking
    Kathryn's World - Wildfire Tracking  Жыл бұрын +13

    41:21 - "Knock him senseless." Makes a lot of sense - especially considering the idea wasn't generally to _kill_ a knight. Just to take him hostage for the huge ransom. Knights kept using straight swords (instead of tapered) for a very long time...because they _didn't_ want to penetrate each other's armor, and kill each other. If they had to kill - they switched to the mace. Edit: (Also, pause it at 44:29 - "That peasant's *** ing crazy man! ) :D

    • Ted Vandergriff
      Ted Vandergriff Ай бұрын

      That guy had a concussion. No way he didn't while claiming to feel sick like that.

  • William Fairfax Mason Prescott III
    William Fairfax Mason Prescott III  Жыл бұрын +24

    Amazing documentary.
    What if Toalhoffa was just documenting fights he witnessed and was an engineer for medieval siege weapons?

    • John DoDo Doe
      John DoDo Doe Ай бұрын +2

      He was officially a master of the duels, but probably had some influence on weapon purchasing by his lord.

  • Kasina Berry
    Kasina Berry  Жыл бұрын +279

    This was so interesting + cool to watch. Baffles me that people think the ancients were so incompetent. Even after all that's been discovered. We're still underestimating our ancestors. Their knowledge, skills, language...everything. It's quite obvious the people of ancient times were quite capable of things we still don't know or understand.
    *edited for grammar

    • Christine Cooper
      Christine Cooper Ай бұрын

      We are the same people really.....no soy boys then though

    • 1crazypj
      1crazypj 3 ай бұрын

      @Dylan McCallister Relatively recently a papyrus was found from a workgang foreman who transported the stones up the Nile. I forget specifics but should be easy enough to find online?

    • Anti - Ethnic Cleansing
      Anti - Ethnic Cleansing  Жыл бұрын

      @33 RPM
      I have no idea wtf you’re on about here bro. I don’t care either.

    • 33 RPM
      33 RPM  Жыл бұрын

      @Anti - Ethnic Cleansing Tis a good video I agree... dunno bout the well written bit but - blood thirsty jewels?? Maybe duels? Or the medieval mob not have 2 separate spellings for the shiny rocks and battles?

    • Anti - Ethnic Cleansing
      Anti - Ethnic Cleansing  Жыл бұрын +2

      @Golden Ratio
      Lmfao. No I don’t work for the department of antiquities. You can choose to not accept this fact if you so choose, but I find that to be sad that you have difficulties accepting reality.
      This is something that is easy to learn about if you only put in a little time to research it.

  • Johnathan Saegal
    Johnathan Saegal  Жыл бұрын +15

    Back in the 70s when I was in 7th grade, my Ancient World History class teacher showed us copies of documents and even old letters written/graffiti scrawled on tables... it showed that the people from ancient Greece to the Middle Ages were no different in mentality than people of today. Same off-colored sex jokes to the same concerns for loved ones. One particular bit of carved graffiti in a preserved bar table was "Alexander the Innkeeper's wife is a pig" followed by someone else correcting it by inscribing below, "No, she's a slut".
    The same type of juvenile scrawling one could find in a bathroom stall or on the wall of a public establishment.

  • mydogbullwinkle
    mydogbullwinkle  Жыл бұрын +5

    It's fascinating how the designer of that armored wagon arranged its cannon into broadside batteries. I wonder if this had any direct influence on the development of the naval broadside which developed about a century later.

  • Dullahan
    Dullahan 3 ай бұрын +95

    I've always said that there's no way everyone who lived back then were just sitting around and saying: "Well, this is the Dark Ages." I'm sure they thought they were on the cutting edge of technology and medicine, just as we do now.

    • Heidenspross
      Heidenspross Ай бұрын +1

      @Volatile well in certain parts of the USA people are already back at that level... *cough* Flint *cough*

    • Morgan Beck
      Morgan Beck Ай бұрын

      @Whatsit 2ya then you never studied science. Biology, physics and chemistry went through incredible booms in the early 20th century. Not to mention we are innovating and an exponentially increasing rate as time goes on.
      You’re mistaking “not perfect” with “no better.”

    • The Real Ostrich
      The Real Ostrich Ай бұрын

      @Whatsit 2ya Have you used a smartphone sir? All that tech that used to be seperate things some of them huge are now in your pocket.
      That's just one thing that has changed since 1980. Cellphones used to be bricks you could see from space.

    • Tony Oliver
      Tony Oliver Ай бұрын +1

      @Gonken88 this is true to a great extent. Imagine being so religious that your every waking breath is governed at least in your mind, by God. Some laws that stand from these times still hold true to my morals. For example, in England in the 14th century two brothers had a sister who was beaten to death by her husband, their brother in law. The two brothers wreaked vengeance on the man and were pardoned before a court because they were upholding the honour of their family by killing their sister's murderer. In those days it was pretty easy to make a living from the heads of others, so long as you went around chopping the heads off of people that they didn't like, you were okay. A very brutal time, but still not as bad as we let on today

  • sol cutta
    sol cutta  Жыл бұрын +21

    37m seeing the knights in genuine armour and the flexibility allowed within was astounding.. This documentary would have been a winner amongst its peers with just this alone. Truly one of the best documentaries on medieval warfare. Astonishing. Bravo.

    • Ted Vandergriff
      Ted Vandergriff Ай бұрын

      That guy was given a concussion for this video

    • Badlaama Urukehu
      Badlaama Urukehu  Жыл бұрын

      Look up the YT video of the guy running in acurate full plate armor.
      It's like an 11 year old video.

  • MinaOmega
    MinaOmega  Жыл бұрын +3

    This is incredibly interesting. Very cool. Wouldn't it be something to write such a book and our future generation should find it and do the same?

  • Denise Bolton
    Denise Bolton  Жыл бұрын +98

    The medieval time was truly a violent time. The weapons they designed to use were amazing. Thank you for showing how they worked. Great show!!!

    • Bret Simpson
      Bret Simpson Ай бұрын

      Pritty awsum above is correct be sht for women

    • Erik Silva
      Erik Silva 2 ай бұрын +4

      Brutalistic!! Was tough living for sure. Must’ve been horrific for women!

    • tato taytoman
      tato taytoman  Жыл бұрын +3

      wasn't this the beginning of the renaissance

  • Daffy Daggers
    Daffy Daggers 4 күн бұрын

    So fascinating and informative! The fighters were so versatile and deft in the execution of their moves! A great historical reference! Thank you!

  • Chris Helton
    Chris Helton  Жыл бұрын +6

    extremely interesting. makes me wonder how much technology existed that we arent aware of in modern times. as well as what technology we have that could be improved upon based on ancient engineering.

  • Th. Burggraf
    Th. Burggraf 2 ай бұрын +1

    Awesome video, I really had a blast watching this.
    It doesn't surprise me to see all these great devices, considering that people back then were highly skilled craftsmen and far more inventive than "modern" people think they were.

  • Jade Dragon玉龍
    Jade Dragon玉龍  Жыл бұрын +2

    Wow, pretty neat stuff and what a beautifully designed book! Such colored and artful books were a big deal back then and nary a bit cheap. Sure gives a new light on technologies that Hollywood has missed out on using in films. In an era of hard survival of your governance or town, I'd think people would had to've been creative in their defense strategies. It's entirely possible that he went around to castles and larger towns, offering training and engineering services, the traveling merchant version of a MIL contractor if you will. My main takeaway was that knights were the bad guys, causing much havoc, meaning dragons were the good guys whom kept those maidens safe and only assumedly eaten. :-p

  • Heather Bishop
    Heather Bishop 2 ай бұрын +2

    Wow! Love this! I’ve never heard of this book before. So glad I found a documentary different from the rest

  • Rijacki Ledum
    Rijacki Ledum  Жыл бұрын +109

    Schwabia is in southernish Germany, Stuttgart, Ulm, etc. and is where my great-grandfather is from, Bad Waldsee (and I still have relatives living there). I'm curious how a book written in Schwabisch got to Denmark. The book itself is fascinating, but the story of how it migrated north would be intriguing as well.

    • Nicolaj Dannemann
      Nicolaj Dannemann  Жыл бұрын

      @Frank Denmark has never been part of the Holy Roman empire. The Danish kings have had holdings within it, and for those holdings been underlings of the Holy Roman emperor. This is were the disputes of where the German-Danish border should be situated originated.

    • Blake 81
      Blake 81  Жыл бұрын

      Wasn't Schwabia also the home of Gotz "One Day They'll Name The Coolest Manga Character After Me" The Iron Hand? Pretty sure him telling his enemies to "Kiss His Ass(TM)" was called the "Schwabian Salute"

    • Keizo Xd
      Keizo Xd  Жыл бұрын +1

      @Tethryss Suebi were an old germanic Tribe, the name Swabia is actually derived from the tribe of the Suebi.

    • Keizo Xd
      Keizo Xd  Жыл бұрын +1

      @Anti - Ethnic Cleansing Actually the "Vikings" were the biggest Traders at the time period they're Working. Just look at the Old Northern Trade Ports and Cities like Haithabu/ Haddeby. The Image of the always Pillageing and Conquering Nordmann Warrior is actually only the Hollywood presentation of things. Because Vikingr means not only that he is raiding but actually a Sailor& Shipmen and making a Journey on the Seas.

    • Grant
      Grant  Жыл бұрын


  • Elizabeth Torres
    Elizabeth Torres  Жыл бұрын +3

    Awesome video, enjoyed every minute of Talhoeffer's fighting techniques, ideas and inventions.

  • Harry Flashman
    Harry Flashman  Жыл бұрын +2

    In Western Martial Arts, Talhoeffer is one of deveral source texts that demonstrate that combat, unarmer and armed was every bit as sophisticated as eastern martial arts. The techniques he shows are all similar to those seen in manuscripts like Fiore, Lichtenauer and thd English treatises.

  • Mason Maxwell
    Mason Maxwell  Жыл бұрын +2

    Gotta say extremely impressed with this, especially the bit on the pommel strike and the real life testing great work

  • Nobody
    Nobody 3 ай бұрын +7

    The image depicts Talhoffer breaking the chain. It is meant as an allegory of the book itself.
    Like a chain, the offensive & defensive capabilities of a castle, an Army or an individual are only as strong as its weakest link.
    The manuscript is intended to market Talhoffers services as not only a fight master, but as also as a master tactician.
    That one image transcends language and universally conveys: “Talhoffer can find the weak link and break the chain”

    • Kevin Baker
      Kevin Baker 18 күн бұрын

      The present forgets, that's why understanding history is so important. The chain allegory is obvious when it's realised, as are the devastating fighting techniques. Talhoffer was good at fighting because brain beats Brawn.

    • Space Lizard
      Space Lizard 3 ай бұрын

      or...you are the weak link Talhoffer found. it's about manipulation. most people are highly suggestible. hence why history channels exist on YT.

  • Chris Clark
    Chris Clark  Жыл бұрын +1

    this was super cool. I had no idea how much artistry and engineering existed back then.

  • singergrrl77
    singergrrl77  Жыл бұрын +14

    I just want to say how much I appreciate the hard work of all the people who worked on this documentary. t’s really beautiful!! This book really deserves to be highlighted and have its moment to be seen. Thanks for sharing it with us. It’s incredibly constructed drawn and handwritten. The fact that the color drawings are still brilliant is lovely!!

  • Joe Average
    Joe Average 3 ай бұрын +60

    1:41 As a footnote, Swabian is still spoken today in parts of Southwestern Germany. It has probably changed over the centuries along with standard German, but it's still alive and well, and not ancient.

    • Pamela Gartner
      Pamela Gartner Ай бұрын +1

      Sütterlin script was created in 1911 to replace the Kurrent, cursive script of earlier centuries, but learning Sütterlin would help you read the old manuscript

    • Th. Burggraf
      Th. Burggraf 2 ай бұрын +1

      @zelgades Gruß aus Oberbayern. Ich hab Sütterlin gelernt um die Feldpost meines Großvaters zu lesen, die er von der Ostfront geschickt hat. Ging überraschend einfach. 🤙🏻

    • zelgades
      zelgades 2 ай бұрын +6

      I was wondering too when I hear this. I live in the south of germany and yes, I speak swabian. Its a little bit difficult for me to read the writing of the book, but I can a little bit of it. My Oma was still learning how to write the sutterlin writing in the 1940 until 1950

  • Dominique Charriere
    Dominique Charriere 3 ай бұрын +36

    Fantastic content! I learnt much through it. Amazing to see the agility of a man in full XV century armour but when you really think about it, 40 kgs distributed on all the body is easier to handle than 40 kgs in the rucksack the Tommies and Poilus were carrying through the no man's land.

    • loopbackish
      loopbackish Ай бұрын

      Indeed. I lost 40kg in weight over the last 2 years and my physical agility is just the same as before. Yet a 40kg backpack would kill me. It's about distribution. Extra weight in your legs doesn't stress so many parts of your body. Same reason that aircraft carry as much fuel as possible in the wings. It doesn't contribute to stressing the airframe.

    • Tony Oliver
      Tony Oliver Ай бұрын

      You'd be surprised how many average men could carry 40kg of armour extra. To be able to perform in it for hours on end is another whole box of frogs

    • Samuel Meier
      Samuel Meier 2 ай бұрын +2

      @Andrew Osborne so let's compromise on context is king, shall we? ;)

    • Samuel Meier
      Samuel Meier 2 ай бұрын +2

      @Andrew Osborne they did in the napoleonic wars, that is true. Attacking with all of your gear in a western trenchwar setting like verdun when charching through the nomansland would be moronic though. Especially because you had places to store that stuff, other than in the napoleonic wars.
      If you are literally walking in fire lines, your rucksack ist still a hinderance. If you are running at mg fortifications like they did in wwI trench warefare or engage in heavy hand to hand combat like roman legions it would be completely nuts.

    • Andrew Osborne
      Andrew Osborne 2 ай бұрын +1

      Napoleonic wars, soldiers were fighting wearing their packs and some wore them assaulting fortifications. The pack may well have been 40-60lbs.

  • sol cutta
    sol cutta  Жыл бұрын +1

    41m that was exhilarating. Watching the guy in red top fight the suited Knight was amazing. I didn't hold much hope for the unsuited guy but using talhoffa(spelt wrong) method really worked. Astounding.

  • TheTarrMan
    TheTarrMan  Жыл бұрын +4

    This was really great. It reminds me of the History or Discovery channel before they went full in with reality TV. Please keep it up!

    • Nick Jackson
      Nick Jackson Ай бұрын

      It was originally on the History or Discovery Channel back in about 2010/11. I recorded it from Sky TV, and it was still on my old STB till a year ago, it had been there for over 10 years. I've watched it a few times over the years. I'm glad it's on KZclip now, I can link it to my younger re-enactor friends who never saw it. Some good presenters with some real credibility too - Dr Bethany Hughes, Mike Loades, Terry Jones are all respected historians/presenters, and John Clements is a renowned HEMA instructor and author.
      Some of it was filmed at Cosmeston Medieval Village, and Jamie, the armoured guy who carried the "bomb" against the archer, used to be an armourer and weaponsmith there, and the leather siege bell was at Cosmeston too. We used it as part of a medieval re-enactment skirmish back in about 2011.
      Me and my wife often talked about doing the judicial duel between the woman and the man in the pit. Or the "rock in the sock" fight as we called it 😁

    • John DoDo Doe
      John DoDo Doe Ай бұрын +1

      The segment introducing the book sounded too much like an "ancient aliens" segment on those disgraced channels. But I battled through that obstacle to enjoy the rest.

  • Van Hattfield
    Van Hattfield 3 ай бұрын +1

    Very interesting. I've watched too many of these types of videos to count over the years as I find them very interesting. This is the first one in a long time that exposed some things I had not previously seen. Very nice...

  • Jean-Philippe D. Leighton
    Jean-Philippe D. Leighton  Жыл бұрын +53

    The Medieval Tank is an interesting one, especially the one depicted in the book. For something like that to function, it would need to be able to transmit the massive pressure caused by the weight into its wheels. I don't think such a carriage would function with just 4 wheels, may may just sink in the ground and get stuck. I wonder if medieval wainwrights were in the business of creating doubled wheel sets, similar to modern semi trucks. Still, I'm not certain how useful these would be on softer grassland, if at all. They'd perhaps work on a dirt / stone path so long as the weather is dry enough. Fortunately, at the time, these wagons would have most likely been used on the Roman Road network, which were likely still usable as a "network" of roads at the time.
    If we are to assume that post-roman defenses followed a similar pattern to roman forts wherein a main road will run straight through a fort, or very near to, we can imagine that certain skilled engineers at the time may have created vehicles like these to control roads, or help break down fortifications along these roads. There is precedence for skilled war engineers making all sorts of unique contraptions to tackle specific situations such as during sieges.

    • sam marino
      sam marino  Жыл бұрын +2

      @Chronic Awareness like in ww1 that would have greatly limited its effectiveness in offensives being relegated to specific locations my guess is it’s like the early ww1 tanks meant to be a breakthrough weapon but were slow. But when they became mobile gun emplacements when they were deployed.

    • Chronic Awareness
      Chronic Awareness  Жыл бұрын +1

      They could have used rails like a train maybe

    • Jean-Philippe D. Leighton
      Jean-Philippe D. Leighton  Жыл бұрын +4

      It was the Roman Empire that introduced Paved Roads across much of Europe. Some cultures may have had paved roads beforehand, but none did what Romans did before the Romans did, which was build a continental scale paved road system. Most of their contemporaries used packed dirt / stone roads. It wasn't until much later that roads of similar or better quality became common. Truth is, after the Western Roman Empire fell, many of those roads fell into disrepair. There are still a few functional originally built roman roads, however they've been worn so much by horse drawn carriages and other wheeled vehicles that massive grooves exist throughout the paved / stone surface.
      Britain's first paved road network was Roman, same is true for much of Europe, and gradually they fell into disrepair in the Dark Ages / Byzantine Era.

    • Civerius
      Civerius  Жыл бұрын +2

      There are people right now doing stuff that will land in a video like this one day.

  • Lewis Smith
    Lewis Smith Ай бұрын +2

    1st documentary I've watched on your channel.
    Captivated start to finish
    Great work, earned a sub 👍

  • Gordon C
    Gordon C Ай бұрын

    Very interesting content, made even more enjoyable with fabrication and demonstration of some of the designs.
    As for the duels, having a husband and wife fight to the death might be a viable option rather than a costly divorce!

  • Elijah Waggoner
    Elijah Waggoner 3 ай бұрын +28

    So many books like this! Wish they would do this for a lot more

  • Sean Clouds
    Sean Clouds  Жыл бұрын +1

    The enthusiasm of the participants in this is unmatched. Bravo 👏 👏 👏

  • J1111B
    J1111B 2 ай бұрын

    What an awesome recreation of the crayfish. The skill, patience and creativity bringing together in 3d something from the 2d medieval pages. Thank you sir👏🏻 👏🏻 👏🏻

  • Achyut Murari
    Achyut Murari  Жыл бұрын +43

    Just cannot appreciate the unequivocal efforts put in here to recreate a bizzare designs, dating back in 15th century. Yet the team proved that history needs to be 'tested' and 'understood' not just read. Awesome work !thoroughly enjoyed and engrossed in this 50 minute video. It was worth it.

    • Arcadia
      Arcadia  Жыл бұрын +1

      I didn't even notice this was 50 minutes long

    • Anti - Ethnic Cleansing
      Anti - Ethnic Cleansing  Жыл бұрын +1

      I agree thoroughly with your comment… This video is very captivating! I think you have a typo though… I’m sure you meant “tested,” and not “rested,” right?

  • Graham Cowley
    Graham Cowley  Жыл бұрын +5

    Just shows, back then you were accountable for your actions and words, you had to stand and defend using your physical skills, compared to keyboard warriors and people who get offended at the slightest moment, great series to watch

    • Big G
      Big G  Жыл бұрын

      I don’t like your comment now you must stand trail by combat and god will decide who was in the right.
      Sounds productive huh

    • Kingsizedmidget
      Kingsizedmidget  Жыл бұрын

      I get your point, and I agree. However, there was no burden of proof back then, and a noble could hire a warrior in his stead for a duel. Meaning if you are a peasant and a noble wants to see you die, all they have to do is accuse you and let the warrior go to work during the duel...

  • Marty Winkler
    Marty Winkler 3 ай бұрын +29

    Love this! Smashing the skull, however, is misleading. Dried bones don't represent the real deal in practice; real bones don't disintegrate like the skull in this video. Still brutal as heck, though

    • scrappy doo
      scrappy doo Ай бұрын

      @Dan Sweda 🤦

    • Virgil T. Stone
      Virgil T. Stone Ай бұрын

      @Dan Sweda
      They wait until it's good and dead, and fossilized, then use some kind of tools to clear the dirt away.
      It's easy.

    • Christine Cooper
      Christine Cooper Ай бұрын +2

      Yep, that skull had been laying around outside for a while and was quite brittle.

    • Tony Oliver
      Tony Oliver 2 ай бұрын +2

      @Dan Sweda bones can survive but their integrity may not. Fresh bone is pink and doesn't shatter into a million pieces. I've known people who have been hit over the head with some horrendous tools and although a fracture was caused, their skill didn't disintegrate

  • Chris Griffin
    Chris Griffin  Жыл бұрын +2

    Figuring out how to defeat an armored knight while unarmored is pretty epic.

  • Jim
    Jim  Жыл бұрын

    Hey Martin, love your work! I watched a video titled “the lost history of earth Full 5 hour documentary by Ewarno” it’s since been removed and wondered if there was anywhere else to find it. Thanks

  • DWlS
    DWlS Ай бұрын

    I would be interested to know who created these drawings. If Talhofer was a fencing master (fight master is a mistranslation), he will probably have commissioned the pictures from an artist.

  • M G
    M G  Жыл бұрын +169

    That's interesting because Leonardo da Vinci is credited with the earliest concepts of an armored vehicle, diving suit, the parachute, helicopter, etc, but in 1459 he would have been 7 years old, so clearly not ideas copied from him, perhaps the other way around.

    • Sanction H
      Sanction H  Жыл бұрын

      @Tim Sexton Yes, very helpful, thank you. I had never heard the term CV used before, always Resume.
      Which is fine I think for most people. Those with advanced degrees, many accomplishments, etc, would likely know about and use CV instead.

    • Tim Sexton
      Tim Sexton  Жыл бұрын

      ​@Sanction H
      The ire & insults in response to your comment, do little if any, to inspire education. While your comment mentions the word resume, a person in the video mentions the term, CV a bit past 16:40.
      Résumé is a French word. Loose English translation means, "summary". One or two page chronological document that details the career background, education, and skills of a person (job applicant).
      CV is Latin for Curriculum Vitae (course of life). It is a formal document, usually of greater comparative page length, and details an exhaustive summary of the academic education and achievements of a person. Used by applicants for roles in academia, scientific research, and medical fields.
      As a citizen in the US, I was unaware of the term CV until just a few years ago. I get the impression this may be a cultural phenomenon where the term CV, is used more broadly in and around Europe, than the states.
      Anyways, hope this helps.

    • Danny THE Dog
      Danny THE Dog  Жыл бұрын +2

      There was one thing missing in, let's say 1460s.
      To have grounds to call out a plagiar between works of large distances and time, if details in them were not a textbook common knowledge stuff. You had no internet.
      Scholarship and libraries had some information, if you were lucky to get them. But the rest of innovation was up to inventors/engineers, just as today. You always build on the works of your predecessors, even the geniuses. Principle of evolution and entrophy.

    • Sanction H
      Sanction H  Жыл бұрын

      @Wicked Lee Stated or implied?

    • Jessé Marasco
      Jessé Marasco  Жыл бұрын +2

      Mainstream Historians do spreads cliché, but real scholars tells otherwise.

  • mrRufffnTumble
    mrRufffnTumble  Жыл бұрын +2

    It's wild how different we are then people of the past in. The concept of putting your life on the line in combat to resolve a probably relatively simple dispute is unthinkable today for most people. The people had courage that's for certain

  • Spider Seven
    Spider Seven  Жыл бұрын +3

    A filmmaker has to incorporate these devices in a movie plot some day! Imagine the action scenes that could be created.

    • Spider Seven
      Spider Seven 2 ай бұрын +1

      @James Joy That would be quite a scene!

    • James Joy
      James Joy 2 ай бұрын +1

      I was thinking the same thing! Imagining a pitched battle, with arrows and flames and smoke . . . and a pair of those siege-bells relentlessly approaching the castle walls like dark age daleks!

  • Mark Goodman
    Mark Goodman  Жыл бұрын +4

    I love how the combatants never forgot to include the cross as their choice for decoration. So much for a forgiving, loving god - the lamb of peace!

  • Peter Szarow
    Peter Szarow  Жыл бұрын +3

    Man, to me this is one heck of an interesting video very cool. The image plates are so vivid in their colors you'd think it was created recently. Or were they??? ha ha. Those fight pro's were really going at it, they must be crazy, geezus.

  • Asbestos Muffins
    Asbestos Muffins  Жыл бұрын +67

    if you were a lord or something and a ship full of bronze cannons went down in your harbor, you'd absolutely pay this guy for the secret to go under water, those cannons were worth a king's ransom

    • aymar stadler
      aymar stadler 4 ай бұрын

      For a follow-up: Willy Ley, The Conquest of the Deep (Chap I, The Submerging Elephant) Thrilling Wonder Stories, June 1938

  • Butt Kid
    Butt Kid  Жыл бұрын +2

    I'm American, and I really love this channel. British history has always fascinated me.

  • Dave Johnson
    Dave Johnson 3 ай бұрын +3

    I love the calm vibe of the thumbnail - “ I’m like gettin’ stabbed bro - LOL! Nicely put together documentary! Anything featuring Mike Loades is worth watching if only for his enthusiasm. Having Terry Jones is an additional bonus. 👍🏻

  • Amir Danial
    Amir Danial  Жыл бұрын

    in the underwater suit scene, those mens who pumped the air initially counted the beat 1, 2, 3, 1, 2, 3.... then after that you can see everybody is pumping at their own pace. haha, maybe they are tired trying to feed so much air and to fight the water pressure. but this documentary is totally great. this is the kind of series that will make me stuck in front of the television after dinner in my school days in the 90's.

  • Lemon
    Lemon  Жыл бұрын +1

    This brings back memories of when i was a kid and I'd watch nova documentation on tv that my grandparents recorded for me

  • Michael Ryan
    Michael Ryan Ай бұрын

    a rock in the sock thing looked super dangerous even as an experiment. one accidental full blow to the dudes head woulda killed him, im super surprised you engaged in this, as it looked like a couple times she got pretty close to landing a blow.
    edit: OK damn, realized they prob replaced the rock with something less lethal...but gosh was good stuff!

  • Hugo Cervantes
    Hugo Cervantes  Жыл бұрын +15

    Just makes me realize we have so much to learn about our past. It’s incredible , but if they knew about this book why wouldn’t they say something sooner? Could be used in our history books. I would like to know who found the book and how??? Super interesting

  • Sergio Déus
    Sergio Déus  Жыл бұрын +3

    l know this would sound weird but lve been asking myself quite for a long time how the Medieval warfare craftmanship was so limited having in mind all the possibilities, even Leonardo have left us. Someone should made a medieval themed movie using this books designs

    • Broadside
      Broadside  Жыл бұрын

      I guess it was more about what materials were at hand (metal isn't cheap) and it required serious smelting technology to create some of these contraptions. But ultimately, people are lazy and stick to what they know. They'd rather spend time learning how to use what was available to win a battle instead of risking experimental new techniques and inventions

  • Jim White
    Jim White 2 ай бұрын

    It's called experimental archaeology and it is vital tool in understanding the past. I had the opportunity to be part of a museum that practiced farming and many trades with tools and materials from the past. I learned first hand how smart, well informed, and inventive our forefathers were.

  • Danny Avery
    Danny Avery Ай бұрын

    Amazing video, thanks so much for taking the time to create & publish it.

  • Cow Chop Time
    Cow Chop Time  Жыл бұрын

    On the bell shaped hting, it looks pretty easy how they got them on and off. The pole in the middle could easily be lifted by two people and allow them to get out. (Assuming it was made of a heavier metal that couldnt just be lifted easily)

  • trustworthydan
    trustworthydan  Жыл бұрын +1

    Wow, very well put together and informative.

  • AJ Lind
    AJ Lind  Жыл бұрын +18

    A team should be assembled to reconstruct each of these devices and machines and presented in a documentary series. I would definitely tune in!

  • Arlene Grundy
    Arlene Grundy 3 ай бұрын +8

    Excellent video...well done. However, it always amazes me how people will causally leaf through a 600 yr old book without any gloves on. The oils on your fingers will do more damage to a book than time itself.

    • Psycho Sweetheart
      Psycho Sweetheart 2 ай бұрын +1

      @davidj Very likely that the one guy that actually had gloves on had the original (which was also placed on a stand instead of being held)
      I'd love a copy of it tho

    • davidj
      davidj 2 ай бұрын +6

      I had the same thoughts. I suspect that they made copies of the original, and used those to leaf through.

  • Richard Farrell
    Richard Farrell  Жыл бұрын +1

    What an excellent video! I learned a lot and it was also exciting

  • Robert Kcisaw
    Robert Kcisaw  Жыл бұрын +1

    This is the coolest doc I've watched in years. High quality stuff. I feel bad for the suited knight though!

  • Peter Sieben
    Peter Sieben 3 ай бұрын +23

    This is the very first time i see more then just one or two pics out of this book .... and the colours are so vivid ... amazing report, thank you.

    • Hans Johannsen
      Hans Johannsen 2 ай бұрын +1

      It's used in modern times for instruction of European martial arts

  • Gun Engineering
    Gun Engineering 3 ай бұрын

    Those bells had to have been made of metal. And that beam in the center of them is very telling. With that you can move by rotating the bell and beam around one and other while requiring relatively little strain by those inside.
    Cushions that size are going to be super heavy. And ingniting them can be very effective too. Igniting a gateway was a technique used to win the battle of Nandorfehervar which took place in present day serbia in 1456. Right at the time of this documentation and not far away from it.

  • Whereis TheSerenity
    Whereis TheSerenity  Жыл бұрын +63

    Fascinating to someone like myself with limited knowledge of weapons of old. I think the crawfish would work effectively against the men in the leather bell.

    • The Cocktailian
      The Cocktailian  Жыл бұрын +3

      @HomeDistiller I do wonder about the scale. But as exampled, I believe they could be very effective. Being low to the ground the bell would become ineffective. Grenades were common place, building things as once use items also common place. As a last line defensive system, rarely would they ever be employed. The cost in the face of this is miniscule.

    • HYSTERIA 0161
      HYSTERIA 0161  Жыл бұрын

      @HomeDistiller they didn't ow it up at either end they would've had crudely made grenade like bombs that were replaceable

    • HomeDistiller
      HomeDistiller  Жыл бұрын

      I don't think they interpreted the drawing correctly or its use at all... Why would you waste all the time building a steel contraption just to blow it up? Hogwash.. I think they got the scale all wrong

    • Anti - Ethnic Cleansing
      Anti - Ethnic Cleansing  Жыл бұрын +2

      Great point!

  • Off With The Fairies FOREVER
    Off With The Fairies FOREVER  Жыл бұрын

    What a book ! Fancy Denmark keeping it safe. Just WOW ! Amazing reconstructions !

  • Arku
    Arku  Жыл бұрын

    These diving suits are mind-blowing! People's ingenuity is truly incredible, no matter when they live.

  • Dottie Randall
    Dottie Randall Ай бұрын

    I absolutely love this one, such detailed info provided by y’all from the author of the manuscript. 👏👏👏👍👍👍👍👍💯💯💯💯💯‼️‼️‼️‼️. Also, yes it is extraordinary that this was from mid-evil time, just amazing‼️‼️‼️

  • Sporto SP-01
    Sporto SP-01  Жыл бұрын

    absolutely fascinating! Thank you for this

  • bradly bellant
    bradly bellant  Жыл бұрын +1

    This production value is actually insane

  • Annika
    Annika  Жыл бұрын +7

    Before I started watching, I thought this would be about Voynich manuscript. But I'm glad to get to know a new strange book from centuries ago. 😊

    • Lathrop L. d S T
      Lathrop L. d S T  Жыл бұрын

      Nope, I knew it was not because of the drawing style. Remember the images from the Voynich book were much more Linneo-style as topic,and medieval in appearance. These look more Gothic/early Rennaissance.

  • Alden
    Alden  Жыл бұрын +7

    The "bell" device looks to me as if it has a pole sticking down through the middle, which makes me think of "petards"," a dangerous, explosive siege weapon, which was shaped like a bell, that was as dangerous to use as it was to deploy. The mouth of the explosives-filled bell would be placed against a castle wall, with pole rooted in the ground holding it in place. The pole in the "siege bell" may have been the petard's pole. Many people trying to use such weapons were killed in the attempt, hence the expression "hoisted by your own petard."

    • margery harper
      margery harper  Жыл бұрын +2

      Good information, my first thought was that it was simply to avoid boiling oil , poured down from the parapets

  • Kaniver
    Kaniver 2 ай бұрын +2

    Imagine if this book was written all as a meme. Anyways great content. Enjoyed this episode 😁

  • Sophia Lovecraft
    Sophia Lovecraft  Жыл бұрын +1

    When he fought that knight and landed that hilt blow, I can only imagine what that felt like, just the vibration and disorientation, real stuff.

  • Squidious
    Squidious  Жыл бұрын

    This was epic. I will be sharing. More please!

  • Jake P
    Jake P  Жыл бұрын

    I love the enthusiasm of that guy in the purple shirt talking about the Crayfish about half way through.

  • Floridaboi Woody
    Floridaboi Woody  Жыл бұрын +23

    Bettany Hughes has such a great voice. I could listen to her narration every day, even if I was not very interested in the video she was in. And I really enjoy every documentary she is in.

    • STAR🌠B⊚Y
      STAR🌠B⊚Y  Жыл бұрын +9

      She's kinda hot

    • Anti - Ethnic Cleansing
      Anti - Ethnic Cleansing  Жыл бұрын

      @Deacon Gowan
      Funny how there isn’t any cool inventions videos for where you came from. Hell… Even the wheel was too difficult of a challenge for your peeps. Lmao.

    • Deacon Gowan
      Deacon Gowan  Жыл бұрын

      Sounds like crappy British English to me.

  • Steve Reed
    Steve Reed  Жыл бұрын

    Very cool! It looks like the older text disappears on the page and modern English was supposed to replace it but they left that layer in AfterEffects off by accident.

  • pure imagination
    pure imagination 2 ай бұрын

    I love everything medieval and Tudor. Love this channel

  • Arran J
    Arran J 2 ай бұрын

    I could envision the crayfish being used as an attacking weapon instead, built large like a carriage and rolled down a hill/slope - cutting into an enemies ranks then exploding shrapnel when a delaying fuse reaches the gunpowder.

  • Luca Baki
    Luca Baki  Жыл бұрын +2

    12:23 she is literally applying an anaconda choke as taught in modern grappling martial arts!!! Amazing!

  • Sophie W
    Sophie W  Жыл бұрын +1

    How can't people get excited about history..it's just great like opening up a box of forgotten treasures .I' m lucky I suppose coming from England because the history of the British Isles is pretty incredible..both for the good & extremely dark !
    I have to admit for having a particular interest in the Medieval period ,some incredible innovations taking place around that time ,get Britain was still so steeped in superstition a very interesting period.

  • Anna Anna
    Anna Anna  Жыл бұрын +183

    hitting a long-dead sheep skull is NOT in any way comparable to hitting a living being

    • MOJO 2112
      MOJO 2112 24 күн бұрын

      Wanna bet. SAS Angola

    • Michael Peterson
      Michael Peterson Ай бұрын

      Are you volunteering?😅

    • Doom Slayer
      Doom Slayer Ай бұрын +1

      I mean . . . You want to be the test dummy? It's just there to give you an idea of how powerful it is.

    • Ray Misuto
      Ray Misuto Ай бұрын

      It's a rock, they break skulls living or not, it doesn't even have to be the rock that's in motion as you can just drop someone head-first on a rock and it will still break their skull.
      It was an extremely pointless demonstration.

    • THE TANK
      THE TANK 2 ай бұрын

      Nor is a woman who hasn't been training for a month, knowing she is going into a fight for her very life.
      I'm a martial arts guy and ex-military, I'll tell you right now the weapon being used could easily fracture a human skull and that as they say on FIF is a kill

  • Memo Alfaro
    Memo Alfaro  Жыл бұрын

    The energy of the man in the purple shirt is just lovely

  • Me MyName
    Me MyName 3 ай бұрын +2

    Talhofer's 1467 edition was reprinted in 1887. The 1459 version has been available online since 2013.

  • TJ M
    TJ M  Жыл бұрын +4

    To me this book is not a manual. It is a sales brochure.
    Years ago I worked in the marketing dept of an industrial company. I produced brochures that indicated the services and equipment our company could offer. Not everything in the brochure had always actually been done, nor did it show details. But it was more 'a teaser' to show our expertise, in the hope we could gain a contract.
    Such brochures were expensive to produce, they were made to impress an give the impression we were a company of substance, that might give credibility to some of our more 'ambitious' ideas.
    I believe Leonardo DaVinci did much the same with his illustrations.

  • jhilyard1
    jhilyard1 2 ай бұрын +3

    Imagine that this stuff happens so often you can write a book AND earn a living off that expertise!

  • Rabbi Ezekiel Goldberg
    Rabbi Ezekiel Goldberg  Жыл бұрын

    That book is very well preserved for one so old.

  • Hannah I
    Hannah I  Жыл бұрын +41

    Why is it that everything out of the middle ages seems to replicate some kind of exorcist nightmare? What a time to have been alive.

    • Arcadia
      Arcadia  Жыл бұрын


    • Broadside
      Broadside  Жыл бұрын +2

      @Reynard Foxx Steelpunk

    • Reynard Foxx
      Reynard Foxx  Жыл бұрын +3

      It was like medieval sci-fi. Cool.

    • Xsara(rally car)
      Xsara(rally car)  Жыл бұрын +7

      @Anti - Ethnic Cleansing you're saying people gruesomely killing each other was a plus? Lol, ooook.

  • Southside Tile
    Southside Tile  Жыл бұрын +1

    Wow, this was absolutely amazing. What a great video to get people THIRSTY for history and knowledge. Our ancestors were so incredibly intelligent and inspiring.

  • Lonely GuyOfficial
    Lonely GuyOfficial  Жыл бұрын +2

    I love how he just punches the armoured guy as if it's nothing. Lol. Armored guy's just like nothing's happening.

  • Duncan Briggs
    Duncan Briggs 2 ай бұрын

    Great video. I understand that Leonardo divinci left out bits from his designs for example a spring in the air pipe for the underwater breathing device. This would stop the pipe collapsing under pressure